MEASURING SLEEPINESS IN adults
Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)
How likely are you to doze off or fall asleep in the following situations, in contrast to feeling just tired? This refers to your usual way of life in recent times. Even if you have not done some of these things recently, try to work out how they would have affected you.
Complete this and share your results with your healthcare provider. Please select the answer that best applies for each situation:
Sitting and reading
Sitting inactive in a public place
(eg, a theater or a meeting)
As a passenger in a car for
an hour without a break
Sitting and talking to someone
Sitting quietly after a lunch without alcohol
In a car, while stopped for a
few minutes in the traffic
Higher scores are associated with more daytime sleepiness. You should discuss your responses and your score with your healthcare provider.
The Epworth Sleepiness Scale (ESS)
Your (ESS) score is:
An (ESS) score greater than 10 suggests excessive daytime sleepiness. An (ESS) score of 16 or higher suggests a high level of excessive daytime sleepiness. You should discuss your (ESS) score with your sleep specialist.
Interpreting (ESS) Scores
This copyrighted material is used with permission granted by the Associated Professional Sleep Societies, October 2012.
Unauthorized copying, printing, or distribution of this material is strictly prohibited.
- Johns MW. A new method for measuring daytime sleepiness: the Epworth sleepiness scale. Sleep. 1991;14(6):540-545.
Share these important scores with your healthcare provider
Tests such as the (ESS) (above) and the Swiss Narcolepsy Scale (below) can help screen for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and narcolepsy withcataplexy, but proper diagnosis requires a complete exam from a healthcare provider. To help him or her make an accurate diagnosis, be open and honest about all of your symptoms and be sure to share your (ESS) and SNS scores.
Use the Doctor Discussion Guide to help you have a more informed and effective conversation at your visit. It provides some important questions and considerations to discuss with your healthcare provider.
EXPLORING SYMPTOMS in adults
Swiss Narcolepsy Scale (SNS)
The SNS helps determine if you may have narcolepsy with cataplexy.
Complete this and share your results with your healthcare provider. Please choose the best answers using the scales shown for each question.
How often are you unable to fall asleep?
How often do you feel bad or not well rested in the morning?
How often do you take a nap during the day?
How often have you experienced weak knees/buckling of the knees during emotions like laughing, happiness, or anger?
How often have you experienced sagging of the jaw during emotions like laughing, happiness, or anger?
Negative scores are associated with a greater possibility of narcolepsy with cataplexy.
The Swiss Narcolepsy Scale
Your SNS score is:
An SNS calculated score that is less than 0 is suggestive of narcolepsy with cataplexy. You should discuss your SNS score with your sleep specialist.
Interpreting SNS Scores
This copyrighted material is reproduced with the permission of the authors. Unauthorized copy, printing, or distribution is strictly prohibited.
- Bassetti CL. Spectrum of narcolepsy. In: Baumann CR, Bassetti CL, Scammell TE, eds. Narcolepsy: Pathophysiology, Diagnosis, and Treatment. New York, NY: Springer Science+Business Media; 2011:309-319.
- Sturzenegger C, Bassetti CL. The clinical spectrum of narcolepsy with cataplexy: a reappraisal. J Sleep Res. 2004;13(4):395-406.
Talk to your doctor about XYREM
The tests above can help screen for excessive daytime sleepiness (EDS) and for narcolepsy with cataplexy, but proper diagnosis requires a complete exam from a healthcare provider. To help him or her make an accurate diagnosis, be open and honest about all of the symptoms you may be experiencing and be sure to share your scores from the tests above.
Use the Doctor Discussion Guide at your visit to help you and your doctor determine if XYREM is right for you. It provides some important questions and considerations to discuss with your healthcare provider.